一．否定句句型 1. 一般否定句
1. China of today is not what it was thirty years ago.
2. “Isn’t that Teddy Thomson out?”—“I think it’s him, but I can’t be a hundred percent sure.”
3. “Oh, sir, he can’t have said such a thing! He can’t have spoken like that to you, sir!”
4. We must not wait for favors from Nature; we must take them from her.
5. I haven’t finished the book yet. 6. Money could not buy happiness.
[注1] He is no fool. Great barkers are no biters.
句型2［主语+do(does, did)+ not+行为动词+其他］
1. Sorrow doesn’t buy bread. 2. Pure gold does not dread fire.
3. “Why is Mr. Cooper so angry today?”—“I don’t know why.”
4. “They did not steal so much.”—“I don’t care how much.” He said, “… A thief is a thief.”
句型3［主语+ 行为动词+ no/not+宾语+其他］
1. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
2. Viola, hearing this, knew not how to behave, nor how to answer her.
3. I know not what course others may take, but, as for me, give me liberty or give me death!
4. We are fleet-winged men at arms; we fear not mountains high or rivers deep.
句型4［There be+ no/not/not any+主语(+状语)］
1. There was no well in the village at that time.
2. Oliver Twist was born in a workhouse… There were no aunts, no sisters, no cousins, no grand mothers.
3. There is not a moment to be lost. 4. There is no holding back the wheel of history
1. Who knows it? (=No one knows it.) Dare he do it? (=He dare not do it.)
2. God only knows! (=No one knows.) As if I would allow it! (= I would certainly not allow it.)
3. Catch me doing that!
4. If I do I am a villain. (=I will not do.) Do that again if you dare.
5. In Heaven, an angel is nobody in particular. They shun personal fame and gains.
6. The city and the areas around it are an ice-free port and a nuclear weapon-free zone. The building is in a state of neglect.
7. She stood still, trying winly (in vain) to answer the battery of questions raised by the reporters.
8. I dislike the idea very much. Mr. White has refrained from making any official comment on the coup in that country. Yesterday she failed to get to school on time. The evidence is conclusive, excluding all possibilities of doubt. They excluded children (from) getting in. We’ll forever live up to what the party expects of us. Avoid operating the keys roughly. She was refused admittance by them.
9. Slips are scarcely avoidable when you’re new to your work. He is ignorant of conditions at the levels. Our PLA is worthy of being called a great army pf the people.
10. The meetings were marked by such an absence of lively discussions that at times they were almost on the point of breaking up. Lei Feng’s noble deeds are above all praise. To do this is beyond my ability. He is out of the office. (= He is not in the office.) Tom is away from Cambridge. (= Tom is not at Cambridge.) It is far from perfect. That served to strengthen instead of weaken our determination (or: That strengthened, rather than weakened, our determination.) The truth is quite other than what you think. I know better than to quarrel.
1. Not a soul was anywhere visible. 2. You must always remember not to become conceited.
3. The teacher told his pupils not to make such a mistake again.
4. I went to see him off, not to meet him. 5. We felt sorry for not coming on time
1. I don’t think it is right to make such hasty decision. 2. I’m not feeling very well today.
3. I don’t believe that he will come tomorrow. 4. You can’t judge a thing only by its looks.
5. He’s studying English now, but he doesn’t speak English very well yet.
6. People did not shake off colonialist’s yoke in order to put on hegemonist’s yoke.
7. Don’t think ill of me because I use her help. She gives it cheerfully as you see…
1. All is not gold that glitters. 闪光的不一定是金子（这是谚语！） 2. All is not lost that is in peril.
3. And yet all did not go smoothly between them, for the younger man…had his heart set on New York.
4. I don’t like both of the novels. 5. Every one cannot make music.
6. Everybody, it is true, wouldn’t like it. 7. Such a thing is not found everywhere.
8. The good and the beautiful do not always go together.
9. A man of learning is not always a man of wisdom. 10. I don’t wholly agree.
[注] Some people like that sort of thing; Some don’t.
1. Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it.
2. No trickery can fool us. 3. None of my friends smoke.
4. I could remember neither the name of the author nor the title of the book.
5. Nothing in the world is difficult for one who sets his mind to it.
6. The book was nowhere to be found. 7. Neither of the sisters is here.
8. Never have we been daunted by difficulties.
1. I do not know any of them. 2. I did not receive any letters yesterday.
3. I don’t like either of the novels. 4. Justice must not be denied to anyone.
5. Did you go any where yesterday?—No, I didn’t go anywhere yesterday.
6. Anyhow I shall not go today.
[注] 不可说 “anybody cannot do it.” 只能说 “nobody can do it.”
1. All germs are invisible to the naked eye. 2. All his plans came to nothing.
3. Both visitors are unwelcome. 4. Every plan made by him is impossible of execution.
5. We all disbelieve in the existence of God. 6. Their quarrels are always interminable.
1. “Oh, no, no, no and again no,” said Pinocchio. “I must be a good boy.”
2. “Am I troubling you?”—“no, not in the least.”
3. I shall never do it, not under any circumstances.
4. We must not think of him as a big, strong boy. Far from it!
5. I don’t know how much you’ve got, and I dare say you hardly know yourself, as it would take a pretty long time to count it.
句型12［(前句) 主语+否定式谓语…，( 后句）not+ (同前)主语］
1. I’ll not do such a thing, not I. 2. He will not break his word, not he.
3. They will not be discouraged, not they. 4. Tom cannot speak Russian, not he.
句型13［(前句) 否定句，+ ( 后句）nor/neither］
1. Frieda didn’t go to the dance, neither did Fanny. 2. You can’t do it, nor can anybody else.
3. You did not see him, neither did I. 4. Are you not going? Neither am I.
5. Oliver did not come that day, nor the next day; nor the next after that, nor for many, many days after.
6. I know not what, nor where, neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water.
I thought of him (=I didn’t forget him), nor did I forget you.
[注2] 前句用little, hardly等半否定词，后句同样可跟延续否定句。
The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here.
1. We are not in the wrong, nor (is) John either. 2. I cannot sing, I cannot dance, either.
3. Mary has no brothers, no cousins, either. 4. I don’t know it. You don’t know either?
5. China will not be a superpower, not either today or ever in the future.
[注] 英语中“也”的概念在肯定句中通常用too, also或…and as well
句型15［主语+否定式谓语…，+增强语气词(much, still, even, far, a lot, a great deal 等)+ less +名词词组或从句］表示“…, 更不用说…”。 相当于 let alone 的效果
1. I could not assent to, much less participate in such proceedings.
2. …he dared not openly charge her with the attempt, much less punish her for it.
3. He doesn’t like music, still less dancing.
4. I did not even see him, still less shake hands with him.
5. I have no mind (idea) to lend this book to anyone, much less to part with it. (割爱)
[注] (much, still, even, far, a lot, a great deal 等)+more也用于追补某些未说完的内容， 但much more只用于肯定句，不能引导延续否定句。 如: I like music, much more dancing. He speaks French, much more English.
Everyone has a right to enjoy his liberty, much more his life.
句型16［主语+否定式谓语…; +to say nothing of/ not to speak of/ not to mention+名词词组］
［主语+否定式谓语…; let alone+名词词组或从句］
1. He does not know English, to say nothing of German or French.
2. In old china there was hardly any machine-building industry, to say nothing of an aviation industry.
3. At that time they could not afford the ordinary comforts of life, not to speak of luxuries.
4. I don’t know algebra or geometry, not to mention calculus.
5. I never thought of it, let alone (或much less, still less) did I do it.
[注1] “not to say”与 “to say nothing of”, 意思相差很远。”not to say”是“不到”的意思，如：It is warm, not to say hot.
[注2] apart from; independently of (姑且不说…) 如：Quite apart from (or independently of) saying a good deal of money in drawing illustrations myself, I derived much pleasure from it.
1. It scarcely matters. 2. I have hardly ever been out of London…
3. The downtown section of New York has hardly (almost not) a tree or a single blade of grass anywhere along the narrow dusty streets.
4. He would hardly recognize his home town if he saw it now.
5. We seldom hear such fine singing from school. 6. Little remains to be said.
1. Few, however, if any, besides the King himself believed that Hermione was guilty.
2. I saw little or nothing of him after you were gone.
3. She seldom or never (if ever) made a mistake. 4. Mr. Morris seldom or never went out.
5. Peter read little or nothing (little if anything) in summer vacation.
1. He doesn’t lend his book to nobody. 2. You can’t make something out of nothing.
3. I’ll take it then. Not for nothing. I’ll give you something in return.
4. I could not disobey him. Only one thing remained for me: to suffer and obey.
5. He was never dissatisfied with my work. 6. What’s done cannot be undone.
7. This captain took a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time.
Nothing is changeless. Nothing is without his faults. Nothing is impossible to a willing mind.
［It (或名词) is+否定词语+不定式+without+名词…/动名词］
1. We can live without food or water for some days, but without air we cannot live even a few minutes.
2. At the beginning of learning English he could not speak it without making mistakes.
3. There is no right to speak without investigation. 4. No gains without pains.
5. (There is) No sweet without (some) sweat.
6. Without revolutionary theory there can be no revolutionary movement.
7. Without knowledge of science and technology it is impossible to build socialism.
8. It is impossible for your team to win without constant training.
[注1] 由第二式的省略 “no…without…”进一步紧缩的结果，便产生 “no…no…” 简略式，主要用于谚语格言。例如：No pains, no gains. No law, no liberty. No investigation, no right to speak. Nothing venture, nothing have. （nothing是no的派生词）
[注2] “not without…” 表示“不无…”、“不是没有…”的意思，是一种委婉的说法。
例如：Not without reason / not without some doubt I have brought back your man—not without risk and danger.
句型21［主语+ cannot+help/ refrain from/ keep from+动名词…］
1. Though Laurence had promised Keith not to see Wanda, he could not help going to her.
2. He (Shylock) could not help showing his pleasure. 3. I can’t help admiring it whenever I look at it.
4. I could not refrain from retorting to hear such a lie. 5. I cannot keep from laughing to hear such a story.
句型22［主语+ cannot+but/ choose but/ help but+动词原形…］
1. “You cannot but feel already that it is useless staying here… you will have to go farther.”
2. I can not but admire his courage. 3. We cannot (choose) but read books to increase our knowledge.
4. They cannot but admit that in certain aspects of science and technology we are away ahead of them.
1. Nothing was useful which was not honest. 2. Nothing can be wholly beautiful that is not useful.
3. I have never committed one act that was not in the interests of my people.
4. Bassanio, in his grief, replied that there was nothing he would not sacrifice.
句型24［(There be) No+ 主语+ but+ 谓语+ 其他］
1. There is no man but has his faults. 2. (There is) Nobody but has his faults. 3. No one but can do it.
4. There is no rule but has exceptions. 5. There is nobody but knows this matter.
1. It never rains but it pours.(=It never rains without pouring.)
2. I never see you but I think of my brother. 3. They never meet but they discuss this problem.
4. She never comes but she brings something for the children.
[注] 汉语中的双重否定句译成英语时不一定用双重否定句。“知无不言，言无不尽。”– Say all you know and say it without reserve. “这样的人是没有不摔跤的。”– Such people are bound to trip and fall.
句型26［主语+谓语+ beyond/ beyond the fact that…］
1. He did nothing beyond writing one letter.
2. He did not really know what he was going to say, beyond that the situation demanded something romantic.
3. Of Oliver Edwards, nothing, I believe, is known beyond the fact that he had been at Pembroke College with Johnson.
句型27［主语+谓语+ but/ but that/ barring…］
1. No one knows it but you and I. 2. He did nothing but wait for the result.
3. I have no secret of success but hard work.
4. I couldn’t see but that the soldiers would fight and die for the sake of their country.
5. Who but he would do such a thing?
6. The meeting will be held next Tuesday barring unforeseen factors.
句型28［主语+谓语+except/ except that/ except for/ excepting/ …］
1. Everyone is ready except you.
2. No man ever became great or good except through many and great mistakes.
3. Except a living man there is nothing more wonderful than a book.
4. We lay there along time in silence, except that Webb groaned every now and then.
5. She is absolutely alone except for her son.
6. All the splendid furniture of his late residence had been sold, excepting his wife’s harp.
句型29［主语+谓语+apart from/ aside from/ exclusive of/ with the exclusion of…］
1. Apart from the question of expense, it is too late. 2. Aside from this statement, he refused to talk.
3. The building will cost about 2,500,000 Yuan, exclusive of the machinery equipment.
4. The Canal system in China is the most extensive in the world with the exclusion of Netherland.
句型30［主语+谓语+save/ save that/ save for/ saving/ saving that…］
1. I do entreat you, not a man departs, save I alone, till antonym has spoken.
2. In this life we get nothing save by effort.
3. At this hour the great tunnel was quiet save when a train roared above.
4. All is lost save honor. 5. Saving his eyesight, he was as well as ever.
6. The bar was empty save for the landlord.
7. Saving that he failed in Latin, he did well.
句型31［主语+谓语+only that/ other than…］
1. I have nothing against him, only that I dislike his manner.
2. “Is anything the matter with Madeline?” – “No, papa, only I have got a headache.”
3. It was fortified on all sides other than this.
4. You will generally suffer for wishing to appear other than what you are; whether it be greater, or more learned.
[注1] besides和apart from兼有“除外”和“包括”的意思。I care for nothing besides (apart from) this. (多用于否定句)
Apart from (Besides) English, he is also well versed in Russian. (多用于带有also等副词的肯定句)
[注2] in addition to有“包括”的意思, 如: In addition to John’s being blamed for this, he was blamed also for breaking the window.
1. Hurling insults and threats is certainly not fighting. 2. It simply will not do!
3. We must not become complacent over any success.
4. We absolutely must not relax our will. 5. The nature of wolves will never change.
6. Without the Communist Party I should assuredly not be what I am today.
句型33［主语+be+ the last+名词+不定式…/从句］
1. For it was Oliver, his cruel brother—the last person Orlando would have expected to find there.
2. He is the last person to do such a thing. 3. This is the last place where I expected to have met you.
4. Breach of promise is the last thing that he is likely to commit.
1. At no time and under no circumstances will China be the first to use nuclear weapons.
2. Young people should on no account (=should not on any account) neglect their daily physical exercise.
3. We have ideals, but we are by no means visionaries. 4. He will in no wise give up study.
[注] 其他加强否定的方式：1. […be anything but…] (决不是) He is anything but a scholar.
2. [(There is) no+ V-ing] (决不可) There is no denying the fact. = It is absolutely impermissible to deny the fact. 因此语意比下句强，“It is impossible to deny the fact.”
1. We must never for a moment divorce ourselves from the masses.
2. The mother did not have a wink of sleep the whole night on account of the child’s high fever.
3. He did not breathe a single word about it.
4. Though I have walked twenty miles, I am not a bit tired.
5. The little boy is do full of energy that he refused to stay put for any length of time.
[注] 表示微量词的词组中以 in the least为最常见，不少的微量词可用它代替。如：
I am not in the least tired. I was not surprised in the least. That boy was not in the least afraid of the snake.
1. There will be no difficulty in the world which they cannot overcome.
2. The doctor was writing a book, but it went on so slowly that it would not be finished within a thousand years.
3. “Don’t you dance?”—“I’m the world’s worst dancer.”
4. He was not at all confused. 5. It is of no value at all.
6. This is a historical trend no force on earth can hold back.
[附注1] 与汉语中的否定式相对应的英语不一定要用否定式。如：“很不好”，不能译成英语的”very not good”, 应换一种说法， “This is very bad.”, “It is not good at all.” 汉语“这事我一点也不知道”可译作 “I am quite in the dark about the matter.”或 “About this I knew nothing.” 汉语“我很不喜欢喝酒。”可译作为 “I dislike wine very much.”或 “I am not a bit interested in wine./I don’t like wine at all./I am the last person to like wine.
其次要注意分析。汉语“一窍不通”，是缩小否定数量的说法，最好译成 “be utterly ignorant”或 “not know the ABC of…/know nothing of… 又如“世界上一切事物无不具有两重性”，这里有几个强调的词语：“世界上”，“一切事物”，“无不”。“一切事物”不能用all/all things, 因此只能用缩小量的说法。 “There is not a single thing in the world without a dual nature.”
1) 逻辑上说不过去的不能改为否定句。Where is Mary? 不能改为 where isn’t Mary?
2) 句型要求不能用否定式的。How hard-working he is! 不能改为 how hard-working he isn’t!
3) 除句型28中列举的一些强调词语有分工外，以下词语只用于肯定句，否定句应采用括号中相对应的异根同义词。Some (not…any); too (not…either); so (neither, no more); a long way (not…far); a lot of/plenty of/a great deal of/a good deal of… (not…much of); as…as (not so…as); already still (not yet/ not any more/no more/ no longer…)
1. I have got some. → I haven’t got any. 2. I see a great deal of him. → I didn’t see much of him.
3. We went a long way. → We didn’t go far. 4. I will do so still. → I’ll not do so any more.
4) 注意may, must, need, can (could) 在肯定句与否定句中的含义变化，对应关系也会出现交错现象。
A. 表示许可用may (口语中常用can); 表示禁止通常用must not, 有时也用may not 语气较委婉。
“May (Can) I smoke here?” – “Yes, you may (can).” 或“No, you must not.” 或 “You may not smoke here.”
B. 表示责任、义务或必要时用must, 否定式只能用need not
“Must we hand in our homework today?” – “Yes, you must. No, you needn’t.”
C. 表示推测指“可能”时，用must; 指“不可能”，“不一定”时用cannot/could not, 有时也用may not, 口气较委婉，意为“也许不”。 That must be a mistake. No, it cannot be a mistake. It must not be a mistake
D. 表示推测也常用may，指“可能”；否定式同上。 He may be right/ He cannot be right. He may not be right.